M'nkhaniyi, tikuphunzitsani zomwe Ukadaulo ndipo mudzadabwa ndi mapulogalamu ndi zina zambiri pamoyo wathu watsiku ndi tsiku.

Kodi Biotechnics ndi chiyani?

Ndi gawo la sayansi lomwe limayang'anira maphunziro ndi mapulojekiti komwe mumalumikiza biology ndi chemistry kuti mufufuze chitukuko chaukadaulo. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito molunjika muulimi, pharmacology ndi madera okhudzana ndi kupanga chakudya kapena kungopititsa patsogolo chitukuko cha mafakitale chosawononga. 

Kutanthauzira kwenikweni kwa mawuwa ndi luso la sayansi pomwe zochita zamitundu yambiri zimalumikizidwa. Chifukwa chake, ndizotheka kupanga matekinoloje omwe amatha kukonza njira zopangira chakudya, zopangira mankhwala ndikuwonjezera moyo wa anthu, kudzera munjira zolumikizidwa ndi chemistry ndi biology.

La ukadaulo o biotechnology limatanthauzanso kugwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo komwe zinthu zamoyo ndi zamoyo zimaphatikizidwira. Cholinga chake ndikupanga ndikusintha kwa zinthu zokhudzana ndi chakudya komanso kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu; Zimaphatikizaponso kafukufuku wonse wokhudzana ndi momwe zinthu zimayambira mu biology, bioinformatics, biology ya maselo ndi tizilombo tosaoneka ndi maso.

Ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri, tikukupemphani kuti mulowe patsamba la National Center for Biotechnology ndipo mupeza zambiri zosangalatsa.

Kusamalira DNA 

Amatchedwa motere ndi dzina lake Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Ili ndi udindo wowonetsa fayilo ya zakuthupi lomwe limapezeka m'selo iliyonse yazamoyo zilizonse padziko lapansi; zimatheka ndi ma virus, zomera, mitengo ya nyama ndi chamoyo chilichonse chomwe chimayimira gulu lachilengedwe.

Amapangidwa ndi ma nucleotide anayi otchedwa Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) ndi Thymine (T). Ndani amapereka zidziwitso zonse zomwe zimapezeka mkati mwa selo. Amatchedwa genomes ndipo amapereka chidziwitso chonse ndi kapangidwe ka zamoyo zonse padziko lapansi; kusiyana kwa zamoyo zina ndi zina ndizophatikiza ma genome.

Dongosololi limasiyanasiyana malinga ndi kapangidwe kake ndi kuchuluka komwe kumapezeka mkatikati mwa zamoyozo. Mwachitsanzo mavairasi ali ndi zochulukirapo kuposa ADN   kuti anthu motero machitidwe awo amasiyana; Komano, DNA ili ndi ntchito zosiyanasiyana kapena mbali zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimayambitsa kukhalapo kwa majini.

Pamene genome iliyonse imasankhidwa ndikugwiritsidwa ntchito kudzera muukadaulo wa microscopic, ntchito zosiyanasiyana za gawo lililonse la genome iliyonse zimadziwika. Zimanenedwa ndiye kuti tili pamaso pakusintha kwa kapangidwe kake kudzera muukadaulo wa majini, zomwe ndizofunikira panjira zaukadaulo.

RDNA kapena DNA yowonjezeranso

Kupanga kwa njira zina kunathandizira kuti tipeze kusokoneza kwa michere zaka zingapo zapitazo. Njirayi idatsegula kafukufuku wonse, kusanthula ndi kusokoneza komwe kunkachitika; Chifukwa chake, njira zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pokonza ma genomes ndi ma enzyme zimatchedwa njira zophatikiziranso za DNA kapena kupanga ma molekyulu a DNA.

Kugwiritsa ntchito teknoloji kutengera zida zama molekyulu kapena monga mwa sayansi amatchedwa ma enzymes oletsa. Ndizotheka kutenga gawo laling'ono la DNA kuchokera ku chamoyo chilichonse ndikuyiyika mu DNA kapena matupi athu a chomera kapena chamoyo china; Izi zimatchedwa ukadaulo wa rDNA pomwe magwiritsidwe awiri kapena kupitilira apo amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Mitundu

Biotechnology ili ndi magawo ambiri owerengera omwe amathandizira pangani mapulogalamu m'magawo akatswiri. Momwemonso, imathandizira zinthu ndikukwaniritsa njira zopezera magwiridwe antchito ndi chitukuko m'malo ambiri amtundu wa anthu, ndichifukwa chake ofufuza amadzipereka kumadera monga awa

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Medicine

Mwapadera amagwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito maselo amoyo pamodzi ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana zamagulu, kuti athetse mavuto amatenda ndikuwonjezera moyo wa anthu. Amagwiritsidwanso ntchito pakugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala omwe amalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito maselo monga othandizira kuchipatala.

Pankhaniyi, tili ndi chitsanzo cha chitukuko cha katemera, maantibayotiki, kupatsira ma cell am'madzi, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuchiritsa matenda ena obadwa nawo komanso kudwala pang'ono.

Industrial

Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zokhudzana ndi makina onse ogulitsa mafakitale kuti apange zinthu ndi zinthu zomwe zingalowe m'malo mwa ena, kuti muchepetse kuwonongeka kwa chilengedwe. Kuphatikiza apo, posintha zinthu zovulaza izi m'deralo, zimathandizira kukonza chitukuko chokhazikika cha mafakitale ambiri.

Zaulimi

Ndiwo dera la ukadaulo imagwiritsidwa ntchito mwachindunji kuntchito ndi chitukuko cha ulimi. Cholinga chake ndikukonza mbewu ndi chilichonse chokhudzana ndi kufesa; mbewu ndi zomera, pogwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wa labotale. 

Pachifukwachi, maphunziro osiyanasiyana amachitika kuti asinthe majini ndi kapangidwe ka mbewu ndi mbewu. Mwanjira imeneyi, machitidwe awo amasintha, kuwapangitsa kukhala olimba ku tizirombo ndi nyengo, kuthandiza kukonza mbewu ndikuwonjezera zokolola zawo.

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ofunsira

  • Pakukulitsa chitukuko cha njira ndi kuthana ndi mavuto azachilengedwe. Mwanjira yoti zamoyo ziziyenda bwino, zomwe zimapangitsa kukula kwawo, mwanjira imeneyi njira zimakula kukulitsa kugwiritsa ntchito ndikukula kwa madera ena, monga mankhwala.
  • Ndi chida chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pozindikira, kuchiza komanso kuchiza matenda okhudzana ndi zovuta zamaso monga kuvulala kwa msana, matenda ena a khansa ndi leukemia. Zimalumikizananso ndikupanga mankhwala, katemera ndi chithandizo chamankhwala. 
  • Kudera lazaulimi, zakhala zotheka kukweza kukula ndi nthangala za mbeu pogwiritsa ntchito zida zomwe zidachokera. Lingaliro ndikupanga chomera kutetezedwa ndi tizirombo ndi mabakiteriya.
  • M'makampani, zakhala zotheka kuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa kuipitsa pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala omwe amanyozetsa pulasitiki ndi zinthu zina mwachangu kwambiri. Poterepa, fayilo ya  biofuel kutengera chimanga, zinyalala zanyama ndi manyowa a zomera pamodzi ndi zinthu zochokera padziko lapansi kuti apange makina ena.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QFV-hpGO8s8

Ngati mumakonda nkhani yathu yokhudza biotechnics, mukonda kuwerenga envelopu Kusungirako kwabwino musaphonye ndipo lowetsani ulalo.